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All Ebook Formats $39.99 ISBN: 9781610914802 Published July 2013
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Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate

A Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

 Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate
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Roger Griffis and Jennifer Howard

288 pages | 8 x 10

Prepared for the 2013 National Climate Assessment and a landmark study in terms of its breadth and depth of coverage, Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate is the result of a collaboration among numerous local, state, federal, and nongovernmental agencies to develop a comprehensive, state of the art look at the effects of climate change on the oceans and marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction.

This book provides an assessment of scientific knowledge of the current and projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the physical, chemical, and biological components and human uses of marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction. It also provides assessment of the international implications for the U.S. due to climate impacts on ocean ecosystems and of efforts to prepare for and adapt to climate and acidification impacts on ocean ecosystem, including
·         Climate-Driven Physical and Chemical Changes in Marine Ecosystems
·         Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms
·         Impacts of Climate Change on Human Uses of the Ocean
·         International Implications of Climate Change
·         Ocean Management Challenges, Adaptation Approaches, and Opportunities in a Changing Climate
·         Sustaining the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources

Rich in science and case studies, it examines the latest climate change impacts, scenarios, vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacity and offers decision makers and stakeholders a substantial basis from which to make informed choices that will affect the well-being of the region’s inhabitants in the decades to come.

Key Terms

Acronyms

Communicating Uncertainty

Executive Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Scope and Purpose 1

2.2 Linkages with Other Parts of the National Climate Assessment

Chapter 2: Climate-Driven Physical and Chemical Changes in Marine Ecosystems

Executive Summary, Key Findings, and Key Science Gaps/Knowledge Needs

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Ocean Temperature and Heat Trapping Ocean Sea Surface Temperature

2.3 Loss of Arctic Ice 58

2.4 Salinity 60

2.5 Stratification 62

2.6 Changes in Precipitation and Extreme Weather Events

Winds
Precipitation
Storms

2.7 Ocean Circulation

California Current

Gulf Stream

2.8 Climate Regimes

North Atlantic Oscillation

Pacific Decadal Oscillation

El Niño/Southern Oscillation

2.9 Carbon Dioxide Absorption by the Oceans

2.10 Ocean Acidification

2.11 Hypoxia

Chapter 3: Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms

Executive Summary, Key Findings, and Key Science Gaps/Knowledge Needs

3.1 Physiological Responses

Effects of Temperature Change

Ocean Acidification Impacts

Exposure to Toxicants

Effects on Life History Tradeoffs and Larval Dispersal

3.2 Population and Community Responses

Primary Productivity

Shifts in Species Distribution

Marine Diseases

Invasive Species

Protected Species

3.3 Ecosystem Structure and Function

Species Interactions and Trophic Relationships

Biodiversity

3.4 Regime Shifts and Tipping Points

Chapter 4: Impacts of Climate Change on Human Uses of the Ocean and Ocean Services

Executive Summary and Key Findings

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Climate Effects on Capture Fisheries

Effects on the Productivity and Location of Fish Stocks

Economic Effects on Commercial Fisheries and Fishing-Dependent Communities

Regional Effects of Climate Change on Fisheries

Fisheries and Communities Adapting to Climate Change

4.3 Implications of Climate Change for Aquaculture

Direct Impacts of Climate Change

Indirect Impacts of Climate Change

Ocean Acidification and Aquaculture

Social Impacts of Climate Change on Aquaculture

4.4 Offshore Energy Development

Oil and Gas

Renewable Energy

4.5 Tourism and Recreation

4.6 Human Health

Health and Vulnerability

Waterborne and Foodborne Diseases

Harmful Algal Blooms and Climate Change

Health Risks Related to Climate Impacts on Marine Zoonotic Diseases

Health Risks of Extreme Weather Events

Globalized Seafood and Emerging Health Risks

Acidification and Other Unknown Human Health Risks

4.7 Maritime Security and Transportation

4.8 Governance Challenges

Fisheries Management in the U.S.

Offshore Energy Development

Tourism and Recreation

Human Health

Strategic Planning

4.9 Research and Monitoring Gaps

Socio-economic Impacts for Commercial and Recreational Fisheries

Subsistence Fisheries

Offshore Energy Development

Tourism and Recreation

Public Health

4.10 Conclusion

Chapter 5: International Implications of Climate Change

Executive Summary and Key Findings

5.1 Implications of Climate Change in International Conventions and Treaties

Convention on Migratory Species

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of

Wild Fauna and Flora

Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles

Convention on Biological Diversity

5.2 Climate Change Considerations in Other International Organizations

Agreement for the Conservation of Albatross and Petrels

International Whaling Commission

Commission for the Conservation of Anarctic Marine Living Resources

North Pacific Marine Science Organization

Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network

5.3 Climate Change Considerations by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations and Living Marine Resource Conservation Organizations

Straddling Fish Stocks

Transboundary Fish Stocks

Highly Migratory Fish Stocks

Arctic

5.4 Climate Change and Other International Issues

Martitime Transportation and Security

Blue Carbon

Chapter 6: Ocean Management Challenges, Adaptation Approaches, and Opportunities in a Changing Climate

Executive Summary, Key Findings, and Key Science Gaps/Knowledge Needs

6.1 Challenges and Opportunities for Adaptation in Marine Systems

6.2 Information, Tools, and Services to Support Ocean Adaptation

Importance of Long Term Observations and Monitoring for Management

Tools and Services for Supporting Ocean Management in a Changing Climate

6.3 Opportunities for Integrating Climate Change into U.S. Ocean Policy and Management

Incorporating Climate Change into Marine Spatial Planning and

Marine Protected Area Design

Integrating Climate Change into Fisheries Management

Efforts to Integrate Climate Considerations into Existing Legislative and Regulatory Frameworks

6.4 Emerging Frameworks and Actions for Ocean Adaptation

Chapter 7: Sustaining the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources

Key Findings

7.1 Challenges to Assessing Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources

7.2 Key Steps for Sustained Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources

Appendix A: Status of and Climate Change Impacts to Commercial, Recreational, and Subsistence Fisheries in the U.S.

1.1: Commerical and Recreational Fisheries

Commercial Fisheries

Recreational Fisheries

1.2: Commerical and Recreational Fishing Dependent Communities

1.3: Regional Involvement in Commerical and Recreational Fishing

North Pacific

West Coast

Northeast

Pacific Islands

Southeast

1.4: Subsistence Fisheries

North Pacific

Other Subsistence Fisheries

West Coast

Northeast

Pacific Islands

Southeast

References

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