Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate
A Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment
Prepared for the 2013 National Climate Assessment and a landmark study in terms of its breadth and depth of coverage, Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate is the result of a collaboration among numerous local, state, federal, and nongovernmental agencies to develop a comprehensive, state of the art look at the effects of climate change on the oceans and marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction.
This book provides an assessment of scientific knowledge of the current and projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the physical, chemical, and biological components and human uses of marine ecosystems under U.S. jurisdiction. It also provides assessment of the international implications for the U.S. due to climate impacts on ocean ecosystems and of efforts to prepare for and adapt to climate and acidification impacts on ocean ecosystem, including
· Climate-Driven Physical and Chemical Changes in Marine Ecosystems
· Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms
· Impacts of Climate Change on Human Uses of the Ocean
· International Implications of Climate Change
· Ocean Management Challenges, Adaptation Approaches, and Opportunities in a Changing Climate
· Sustaining the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources
Rich in science and case studies, it examines the latest climate change impacts, scenarios, vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacity and offers decision makers and stakeholders a substantial basis from which to make informed choices that will affect the well-being of the region’s inhabitants in the decades to come.
Storms2.7 Ocean CirculationCalifornia CurrentGulf Stream2.8 Climate RegimesNorth Atlantic OscillationPacific Decadal OscillationEl Niño/Southern Oscillation2.9 Carbon Dioxide Absorption by the Oceans2.10 Ocean Acidification2.11 Hypoxia Chapter 3: Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms Executive Summary, Key Findings, and Key Science Gaps/Knowledge Needs 3.1 Physiological Responses Effects of Temperature Change Ocean Acidification Impacts Exposure to Toxicants Effects on Life History Tradeoffs and Larval Dispersal 3.2 Population and Community Responses Primary ProductivityShifts in Species DistributionMarine DiseasesInvasive SpeciesProtected Species3.3 Ecosystem Structure and FunctionSpecies Interactions and Trophic RelationshipsBiodiversity3.4 Regime Shifts and Tipping PointsChapter 4: Impacts of Climate Change on Human Uses of the Ocean and Ocean Services Executive Summary and Key Findings 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Climate Effects on Capture Fisheries Effects on the Productivity and Location of Fish Stocks Economic Effects on Commercial Fisheries and Fishing-Dependent CommunitiesRegional Effects of Climate Change on Fisheries Fisheries and Communities Adapting to Climate Change 4.3 Implications of Climate Change for Aquaculture Direct Impacts of Climate ChangeIndirect Impacts of Climate ChangeOcean Acidification and AquacultureSocial Impacts of Climate Change on Aquaculture 4.4 Offshore Energy DevelopmentOil and GasRenewable Energy4.5 Tourism and Recreation4.6 Human HealthHealth and VulnerabilityWaterborne and Foodborne DiseasesHarmful Algal Blooms and Climate ChangeHealth Risks Related to Climate Impacts on Marine Zoonotic DiseasesHealth Risks of Extreme Weather EventsGlobalized Seafood and Emerging Health RisksAcidification and Other Unknown Human Health Risks4.7 Maritime Security and Transportation4.8 Governance ChallengesFisheries Management in the U.S.Offshore Energy DevelopmentTourism and RecreationHuman HealthStrategic Planning4.9 Research and Monitoring GapsSocio-economic Impacts for Commercial and Recreational FisheriesSubsistence FisheriesOffshore Energy DevelopmentTourism and RecreationPublic Health4.10 ConclusionChapter 5: International Implications of Climate Change Executive Summary and Key Findings5.1 Implications of Climate Change in International Conventions and TreatiesConvention on Migratory SpeciesConvention on Wetlands of International ImportanceConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and FloraInter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea TurtlesConvention on Biological Diversity5.2 Climate Change Considerations in Other International OrganizationsAgreement for the Conservation of Albatross and PetrelsInternational Whaling CommissionCommission for the Conservation of Anarctic Marine Living ResourcesNorth Pacific Marine Science OrganizationWider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network5.3 Climate Change Considerations by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations and Living Marine Resource Conservation OrganizationsStraddling Fish StocksTransboundary Fish StocksHighly Migratory Fish StocksArctic5.4 Climate Change and Other International IssuesMartitime Transportation and SecurityBlue CarbonChapter 6: Ocean Management Challenges, Adaptation Approaches, and Opportunities in a Changing ClimateExecutive Summary, Key Findings, and Key Science Gaps/Knowledge Needs6.1 Challenges and Opportunities for Adaptation in Marine Systems6.2 Information, Tools, and Services to Support Ocean AdaptationImportance of Long Term Observations and Monitoring for ManagementTools and Services for Supporting Ocean Management in a Changing Climate6.3 Opportunities for Integrating Climate Change into U.S. Ocean Policy and ManagementIncorporating Climate Change into Marine Spatial Planning and Marine Protected Area DesignIntegrating Climate Change into Fisheries ManagementEfforts to Integrate Climate Considerations into Existing Legislative and Regulatory Frameworks6.4 Emerging Frameworks and Actions for Ocean Adaptation Chapter 7: Sustaining the Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine ResourcesKey Findings7.1 Challenges to Assessing Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources7.2 Key Steps for Sustained Assessment of Climate Impacts on Oceans and Marine Resources Appendix A: Status of and Climate Change Impacts to Commercial, Recreational, and Subsistence Fisheries in the U.S. 1.1: Commerical and Recreational Fisheries Commercial FisheriesRecreational Fisheries1.2: Commerical and Recreational Fishing Dependent Communities1.3: Regional Involvement in Commerical and Recreational FishingNorth PacificWest CoastNortheastPacific IslandsSoutheast1.4: Subsistence FisheriesNorth PacificOther Subsistence FisheriesWest CoastNortheastPacific IslandsSoutheastReferences